Tips and tricks for playing in tune – or giving the impression of playing in tune
Intonation is a lifelong challenge for string players – which is not surprising, since perfect intonation is mathematically impossible. You can go from one note to another via a different series of perfect intervals and end up with slightly different frequencies. That said, here are 7 ways to improve the impression of pure intonation:
It is important for you to get physically comfortable with your instrument. You may have perfectly good ears, but play out of tune because of a bad physical relationship with your instrument. Tension resulting from poor practice can result in inaccurate shifts, and even in an inability to hear yourself objectively when playing.
This can be painful, but also enlightening. It helps to record yourself with decent equipment so that you don’t sound bad merely because of the quality of the recording itself. For violin tone, stereo makes a big difference.
It takes time to hear pitch precisely, so practising fast too early while learning a piece will train fingers to fall imprecisely, and will dull objective listening.
Never use vibrato until you have a clear idea of pitch. While learning a piece try playing it entirely without vibrato, and then with a very small, centred vibrato, until the pitch relationships jell.
Practise scales and arpeggios accompanied by a drone
There is a simple note-generating programme on the internet that you can use for this purpose.
Intonation is the relationship among notes, and what better way to work on this relationship than in duets? The first violinist of the Biava Quartet, Austin Hartman, says that the quartet practises Bach chorales very slowly and without vibrato for intonation.
In addition to all their other virtues, Bach’s sonatas and partitas for violin and his cello suites are excellent intonation studies. Every issue of melodic versus harmonic intonation relative to the open strings arises, forcing the player to decide consciously on a philosophy of intonation
Read cellist Pablo Casals's theories on expressive intonation.
This article was first published as part of a larger feature in The Strad's December 2007 issue. Subscribe to The Strad or download our digital edition as part of a 30-day free trial. To purchase single issues click here.